Null block device driver¶
The null block device (/dev/nullb*) is used for benchmarking the various block-layer implementations. It emulates a block device of X gigabytes in size. The following instances are possible:
- Single submission queue per device.
- Implements IO scheduling algorithms (CFQ, Deadline, noop).
- Configurable submission queues per device.
No block-layer (Known as bio-based)
- Bio-based. IO requests are submitted directly to the device driver.
- Directly accepts bio data structure and returns them.
All of them have a completion queue for each core in the system.
2. Module parameters applicable for all instances¶
- queue_mode=[0-2]: Default: 2-Multi-queue
Selects which block-layer the module should instantiate with.
0 Bio-based 1 Single-queue 2 Multi-queue
- home_node=[0--nr_nodes]: Default: NUMA_NO_NODE
- Selects what CPU node the data structures are allocated from.
- gb=[Size in GB]: Default: 250GB
- The size of the device reported to the system.
- bs=[Block size (in bytes)]: Default: 512 bytes
- The block size reported to the system.
- nr_devices=[Number of devices]: Default: 1
- Number of block devices instantiated. They are instantiated as /dev/nullb0, etc.
- irqmode=[0-2]: Default: 1-Soft-irq
The completion mode used for completing IOs to the block-layer.
0 None. 1 Soft-irq. Uses IPI to complete IOs across CPU nodes. Simulates the overhead when IOs are issued from another CPU node than the home the device is connected to. 2 Timer: Waits a specific period (completion_nsec) for each IO before completion.
- completion_nsec=[ns]: Default: 10,000ns
- Combined with irqmode=2 (timer). The time each completion event must wait.
- The number of submission queues attached to the device driver. If unset, it defaults to 1. For multi-queue, it is ignored when use_per_node_hctx module parameter is 1.
- hw_queue_depth=[0..qdepth]: Default: 64
- The hardware queue depth of the device.
III: Multi-queue specific parameters
use_per_node_hctx=[0/1]: Default: 0
0 The number of submit queues are set to the value of the submit_queues parameter. 1 The multi-queue block layer is instantiated with a hardware dispatch queue for each CPU node in the system.
no_sched=[0/1]: Default: 0
0 nullb* use default blk-mq io scheduler 1 nullb* doesn't use io scheduler
blocking=[0/1]: Default: 0
0 Register as a non-blocking blk-mq driver device. 1 Register as a blocking blk-mq driver device, null_blk will set the BLK_MQ_F_BLOCKING flag, indicating that it sometimes/always needs to block in its ->queue_rq() function.
shared_tags=[0/1]: Default: 0
0 Tag set is not shared. 1 Tag set shared between devices for blk-mq. Only makes sense with nr_devices > 1, otherwise there's no tag set to share.
zoned=[0/1]: Default: 0
0 Block device is exposed as a random-access block device. 1 Block device is exposed as a host-managed zoned block device. Requires CONFIG_BLK_DEV_ZONED.
- zone_size=[MB]: Default: 256
- Per zone size when exposed as a zoned block device. Must be a power of two.
- zone_nr_conv=[nr_conv]: Default: 0
- The number of conventional zones to create when block device is zoned. If zone_nr_conv >= nr_zones, it will be reduced to nr_zones - 1.