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As an umbrella project, dLeyna hosts a cluster of middleware components for the implementation of Digital Media Servers, Digital Media Renderers, Digital Media Controllers and Digital Media Players. These readily available APIs enable consumer electronics system builders to reduce Build-of-Material costs and time-to-market.

Item objects represent a unique piece of media that can be downloaded or streamed. Each item object implements the org.gnome.UPnP.MediaObject2 interface, that is documented in the Server Objects page, and the org.gnome.UPnP.MediaItem2 interface that is documented in the MediaServer2Spec. Although the org.gnome.UPnP.MediaItem2 is documented elsewhere, there are some peculiarities of its implementation in dLeyna-server that merit further explanation. These are described in the sections below.

Transcoding and org.gnome.UPnP.MediaItem2

As mentioned in the Manager Object page, DMSs often provide different representations of the same media file. Separate sets of meta data, such as a mime type, a URL, a size, a color depth, etc., are associated with each representation. Unfortunately, it is difficult to represent this in org.gnome.UPnP.MediaItem2. Although, org.gnome.UPnP.MediaItem2, allows multiple URLs to be specified, it only permits a single set of metadata to be associated with each item. For example, the MIMEType property is a single string and not an array. If multiple URLs were associated with the same item, one would not know to which URL the MIMEType property pertained. For this reason, dLeyna-server only ever returns one element in the URLs property. By default, the value of this URL, and all of the metadata properties that can change with a representation (MIMEType, DLNAProfile, Size, Duration, Bitrate, SampleRate, BitsPerSample, Width, Height, ColorDepth), refer to the first representation returned by the DMS for this item. However, the client can change this behavior by calling If this is done, these properties correspond to the first representation returned by the server that is compatible with the specified protocol info. If no representations are compatible, these properties will not be present in the item.


dLeyna-server offers a second solution to the above problem, that may be useful in certain programming environments. It implements a nonstandard property called "Resources", which is an array of dictionaries. Each dictionary represents a separate representation of the item and contains all the properties, including the MIMEType and the URL, that pertain to that representation. This can be convenient if you wish to display the media item in a web browser. You can simply create a video or an audio tag, with one source for each element in the resources array, and then let the browser work out which one suits it best. The specification for the Resources property is given in the table below:

Name Type m/o* Description
Resources aa{sv} m Returns the set of resources associated with an item.

The names of the properties included in this array are identical to the names of the org.gnome.UPnP.MediaItem2 properties, to which they correspond, such as, MIMEType, Size.

Note: If you want the resource properties to be included in the results of a call to one of the List or the Search functions, and you are explicitly filtering properties, you must include "Resources" in the filter array. The filter parameter also applies to the contents of the returned resources. So if you specify a filter of ["Resources", "MIMEType", "URL"], the dictionaries in the resources array will contain only the MIMEType and URL properties.

dLeyna-server defines four additional resource properties. These have been added to improve our DLNA support.

Name Type m/o* Description
DLNAConversion a{sb} o Indicates whether the content of the Resource is in original source format or if the content is transcoded. There is 1 key: 'Transcoded'. New in v0.0.2
DLNAFlags a{sb} o A dictionary of boolean values indicating the values of the various operations supported by a resource. There are 12 keys: SenderPaced, TimeBased, ByteBased, PlayContainer, S0Increase, SNIncrease RTSPPause, StreamingTM, InteractiveTM, BackgroundTM, ConnectionStall, DLNA_V15. New in v0.0.2
DLNAOperation a{sb} o A dictionary of boolean values indicating the values of the various DLNA Operation attributes. There are 2 keys: RangeSeek and TimeSeek. New in v0.0.2
UpdateCount u o Contains the number of times the implementation detects that a change was made to the resource. A value of 0 indicates that it has never been updated.


A third option is provided to make the lives of DMC authors easier. In a DMC, the best resource is defined not by the local device but by the capabilities of the renderer chosen by the user, to play the given item. Once the user selects a file to play and a renderer upon which to play it, the DMC needs to retrieve the renderer's Sink ProtocolInfo. It can then pass this data directly to a new function that dLeyna-server adds to the org.gnome.UPnP.MediaItem2 interface, called GetCompatibleResource. GetCompatibleResource returns a dictionary of properties that corresponds to the item representation that best matches a specified protocol info. The signature of GetCompatibleResources is given below:

Signature Description
GetCompatibleResources(s protocol_info, as filter) -> a{sv} The first argument is a comma separated list of protocol info values, as described in the Manager Object page. The second argument is an array of properties to be included in the returned dictionary. The format and the behavior of this array is identical to the filter argument passed to the Search and List functions.

Additional properties

dLeyna-server defines some additional properties for org.gnome.UPnP.MediaItem2. These properties are described in the table below:

Name Type m/o* Description
AlbumArtURL s o Contains the URL of the album art associated with an item.
RefPath o o The presence of this property indicates that the item is a reference item that references another item located elsewhere in the DMS's directory structure. The value of this property is the path of the referenced item.
Artists as m An array of all the artists who contributed towards the creation of the item. The array will be empty if no artists are associated with the item.
DLNAConversion a{sb} o See Resources section. New in v0.0.2
DLNAFlags a{sb} o See Resources section. New in v0.0.2
DLNAOperation a{sb} o See Resources section. New in v0.0.2
UpdateCount u o See Resources section.

dLeyna-server does not implement the org.gnome.UPnP.MediaItem2.AlbumArt property for the same reasons that it does not implement the org.gnome.UPnP.MediaContainer2.Icon property. However, it does provide an alternative method of retrieving the album art associated with media content. It does this through a new property called AlbumArtURL described in the table above that exposes the URL of the album art directly.

Unimplemented Properties

dLeyna-server does not support the following MediaServer2Spec properties:

  • PixelWidth
  • PixelHeight
  • Thumbnail
  • AlbumArt

However, because these properties are optional, dLeyna-server's failure to support them does not affect its compatibility with MediaServer2Spec.